1478  Establishment of Inquisition by Isabel of Castilla.
1492  Fall of Granada. Expulsion of Jews. Discovery of America.
Burning of Arab texts in Granada.
Torquemada,  first Grand Inquisitor, responsible for 2000 deaths. 

1506 – 1508  Reign of Juana the madwoman and Felipe of Austria.
1508 – 1516  Fernando of Aragón acts as regent for Juana.

Hapsburg Dynasty

1516 Carlos I  Son of Juana and Felipe.  Inherits Spanish kingdom and Austrian Habsburg empire. 
1519  Conquest of Aztec empire in modern Mexico by Hernan Cortez.
1531  Conquest of Inca empire in Andes by Francisco Pizarra.. 
1554  Carlos abdicates Dutch throne to son Felipe II.
1554  Felipe II marries Mary Tudor of England.  It lasts 18 months.
1556 Carlos I abdicates Spanish throne and empire to Felipe.
1558  Dutch revolts.  1581 Dutch independence aided by England.
1571 Spain leads “The Holy League”  against the Turks who are defeated in the battle of Lepanto in modern Greece.
1584  Completion of El Escorial palace where Felipe lives and works.
1588 Felipe sends Spanish “Invincible Armada” to England. 

Felipe III  1598 –1621
1609  Expulsion of “Moriscos”, Muslims or Christians of Moorish descent.  Age of decadent aristocracy, hidalgos and extreme poverty.

Felipe IV 1621-1665
Age of Velazquez.  Decadence, frivolity and bizarre spectacles.
Golden age of art, literature and drama.
Depopulation problem due to plague and emigration to Americas.
75% American wealth in the hands of private individuals.
Wealth in foreign banks.   Poverty, violence, crime and corruption.   

Carlos II  1665-1700
Last of Hapsburgs.  Victim of inbreeding. 
1680 biggest  Inquisition “Auto de Fe” in history, with 21 burnings. 
Borbón grandson of Louis XIV of France nominated by Felipe as heir.
1700 Borbón Felipe V takes up throne to opposition from protestant Europe.  End of Hapsburg empire.

1702 to 1713   War of Spanish Succession.
1713  Treaty of Utrecht recognises Felipe V.  England get Gibraltar.

Bourbon Dynasty
Felipe V 1700-1746.   Depressive and unstable.  Controlled by grandfather Louis XIV of France.
1713  Establishment of Real Academia Española.
1714  Felipe marries Italian second wife, Isabel de Farnesio.
1724  Felipe abdicates in favour of son Luis I who dies within a year. 

Fernando VI  1746-59  Second son of Felipe V first marriage.  Marries Portuguese Barbara de Braganza.  Period of peace and centralisation of Spanish nation.  Barbara dies without offspring. Fernando becomes demented with grief and dies shortly after.
Carlos III  1759-88
Son of Isabel of Farnesio and half brother of Fernando VI.  44 years old and already king of Naples and Sicily for 25 years.  
Absolutist king but works hard to modernise country. 
1766  Flees Madrid because of riots.  Confronted church and expelled Jesuits for plotting revolt.
1778  Free Trade Act.  Opposes England and then becomes neutral during American War of Independence.   Sanitises and rebuilds Madrid.  Builds El Prado museum.  Dies aged 73.

Carlos IV  1788 to 1808
Lover of art and music.   Goya is court painter.   Chief minister Manuel de Godoy,  believed to be queen María Luisa’s lover.
1789  French Revolution.   Attempts to save cousin Louis XVI.
1799  Rise of Napoleon.  Spain pawn between England and France.
1805  Battle of Trafalgar.
1808  Felipe abdicates in favour of son Fernando to save Godoy from mobs.   Napoleon exiles Felipe and María Luisa in Rome and Fernando in France.

1808  José I   (Bonaparte) placed on throne by Napoleon.
2nd May 1808  Spanish revolts and severe French repression.
1808 – 1812  Spanish war of independence – a guerrilla war.
1812   Constitution of Cádiz, nicknamed “La Pepa”, signed by liberal politicians in Spanish controlled territory.

1812  Fall of Napoleon.  Return of Fernando VII  “the desired one”  Loss of Venezuela, Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Mexico and Peru.  1830 Birth of Isabel II.  Fernando revokes of Salic Law of succession. 
1833  Death of Fernando.  Brother  Don Carlos proclaims self king. 
1833 – 39  First Carlist war.  Regency of  María Cristina.
1868  “La Gloriosa”  The glorious revolution.  Isabel exiled.
1870 – 73  Amadeo I of Savoy, elected king by parliament.
1873-74 The first republic.
1875  Alfonso XII.  Restoration of Borbons.
1902  Alfonso XIII becomes king at age of 17.

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