MOORISH SPAIN

711 – 1031 Muslim domination. 

1031 - 1492 Christian advance.


622 a.d. Mohammed establishes Islamic in Medina.
630  Meca made holy city.
632 Mohammed dies with Arabia already Muslim.
708 Fall of Tangier.  Islam spread from Punjab to African Magreb.
Magreb ruled by berber Muza Ibn Nusayr. 
Spiritual ruler of caliph of Omeya family in Damascus.

711 Muza sends army commander Tariq “the one-eyed” to “Al-Andalus” (most probably meaning “the Isle of the Vandals”)
Tariq leads 10,000 fighters, mostly Berbers and few Arabs.
Lands in Gibraltar (from Yabal Tariq – the mountain of Tariq).
Defeat of Visigoth King Rodrigo at Guadalete. 
Most of Iberia conquered in 4 years by making treaties with lords.

716 Córdoba established as capital under son of Muza.
722 Moors defeated in battle of Covadonga, Asturias.  Marks establishment of Visigoth Christian kingdom in northern Spain. 
732 Moorish expansion stopped in Poitiers, France by Carlos Martel.
 
756  Massacre of Omeyas in Damascus.  Islam capital now Baghdad.
Abd Al-Rahman I established self as independent Emir. 
785 Mosque built on site of old church of San Vicente.  
811 Santiago de Compostela established as Christian pilgrim centre.
844 Battle of Clavija where Santiago appeared and defeated Moors.

929 Abd Al-Rahman III  Declares himself Caliph independent from spiritual centre Baghdad. 
Builds spectacular Medina Azahara palace and extended mosque. 

981 rise to power of Almanzor.  Attacked north.  Sacked Santiago.
1009 Degeneration of Córdoba dynasty.  Destruction of palace.
1031  Death of last caliph Hixem III.  Córdoba made republic.
1031 about 30 independent Taifas created.    Expansion of Christian kingdoms.                                                         

1085  Alfonso VI of Castilla conquers Toledo.    Taifas call for help of Almoravids from North Africa.  They conquer taifas and stay in Spain.
1094  El Cid becomes a sovereign of Valencia.                             

1145  Almohads arrive from N. Africa.  Try to unify taifas.
1171 Yusuf 1 installs in Sevilla builds mosque and Giralda in 1195. 1195 Beat Castilian troops in Alarcos.  Internal problems in Taifas. 1212 defeated in Tolosa by alliance of Castilla, Aragón and Navarra.  1229 fall of Mallorca, 1238 fall of Valencia to Aragón.                   

1236 fall of Córdoba, 1248 fall of Sevilla to Castilla.
1238  Nazari dynasty established in Granada.  Building of Alhambra palace, ”the red one”.  Paid tribute to Christian kingdoms.   Kingdom covers modern Granada, Málaga and Almería.  1252  Alfonso X The Wise One, king of Toledo establishes school of translators to translate Arab, Hebrew and Greek texts into Latin.                                                                                                    1340  Batalla del Salado.  Last big Christian offensive in Cádiz.
1492  Last king of Granada, Boabdil surrenders to catholic kings Isabel of Castilla and Fernando of  Aragón after long siege.  Moors allowed to remain in Spain.  Boabdil exiled to Alpujarra mountains.

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