SPAIN AFTER THE MOORS
1478 Establishment of Inquisition by Isabel of Castilla.
1492 Fall of Granada. Expulsion of Jews. Discovery of America.
1499 Burning of Arab texts in Granada.
Torquemada, first Grand Inquisitor, responsible for 2000 deaths.
1506 – 1508 Reign of Juana the madwoman and Felipe of Austria.
1508 – 1516 Fernando of Aragón acts as regent for Juana.
Felipe III 1598 –1621
1609 Expulsion of “Moriscos”, Muslims or Christians of Moorish descent. Age of decadent aristocracy, hidalgos and extreme poverty.
Felipe IV 1621-1665
Age of Velazquez. Decadence, frivolity and bizarre spectacles.
Golden age of art, literature and drama.
Depopulation problem due to plague and emigration to Americas.
75% American wealth in the hands of private individuals.
Wealth in foreign banks. Poverty, violence, crime and corruption.
Carlos II 1665-1700
Last of Hapsburgs. Victim of inbreeding.
1680 biggest Inquisition “Auto de Fe” in history, with 21 burnings.
Borbón grandson of Louis XIV of France nominated by Felipe as heir.
1700 Borbón Felipe V takes up throne to opposition from protestant Europe. End of Hapsburg empire.
1702 to 1713 War of Spanish Succession.
1713 Treaty of Utrecht recognises Felipe V. England get Gibraltar.
Felipe V 1700-1746. Depressive and unstable. Controlled by grandfather Louis XIV of France.
1713 Establishment of Real Academia Española.
1714 Felipe marries Italian second wife, Isabel de Farnesio.
1724 Felipe abdicates in favour of son Luis I who dies within a year.
Fernando VI 1746-59 Second son of Felipe V first marriage. Marries Portuguese Barbara de Braganza. Period of peace and centralisation of Spanish nation. Barbara dies without offspring. Fernando becomes demented with grief and dies shortly after.
Carlos III 1759-88
Son of Isabel of Farnesio and half brother of Fernando VI. 44 years old and already king of Naples and Sicily for 25 years.
Absolutist king but works hard to modernise country.
1766 Flees Madrid because of riots. Confronted church and expelled Jesuits for plotting revolt.
1778 Free Trade Act. Opposes England and then becomes neutral during American War of Independence. Sanitises and rebuilds Madrid. Builds El Prado museum. Dies aged 73.
Carlos IV 1788 to 1808
Lover of art and music. Goya is court painter. Chief minister Manuel de Godoy, believed to be queen María Luisa’s lover.
1789 French Revolution. Attempts to save cousin Louis XVI.
1799 Rise of Napoleon. Spain pawn between England and France.
1805 Battle of Trafalgar.
1808 Felipe abdicates in favour of son Fernando to save Godoy from mobs. Napoleon exiles Felipe and María Luisa in Rome and Fernando in France.
1808 José I (Bonaparte) placed on throne by Napoleon.
2nd May 1808 Spanish revolts and severe French repression.
1808 – 1812 Spanish war of independence – a guerrilla war.
1812 Constitution of Cádiz, nicknamed “La Pepa”, signed by liberal politicians in Spanish controlled territory.
I finished the last article by referring to the various connections between modern languages, and more specifically, with the idea that modern English is mainly derived from the Germanic and[…]Read more...
The primary meaning of “creer” is “to believe” although in everyday speech it often appears when we would use the word “to think” in English. For example, if I were[…]Read more...
“Poner” is another verb which has a rather wide range of meanings. The basic translation of “to put” is similar to “to place”. “Pone el libro en la mesa” (she[…]Read more...
This week’s verb is “dar” which means “to give”. It is a very basic verb in Spanish because as well as meaning “give” it has a lot of derivatives and[…]Read more...
“Abrir” means “to open” and is used in all the usual ways we use “to open” in English, that is, referring to doors, windows, shops and your mouth. Grammatically is[…]Read more...